Hyponatremia can be caused by heart, kidney, or liver problems, diarrhea, sweating, vomiting, dehydration, or certain drugs and medications. Since sodium is lost in sweat, hyponatremia also can be caused by drinking too much water during exercise, especially extended, intense exercise, such as a marathon or triathlon.
What causes sodium levels to be low?
In hyponatremia, the level of sodium in blood is too low. A low sodium level has many causes, including consumption of too many fluids, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and use of diuretics. Symptoms result from brain dysfunction.
How do you fix low sodium?
Treatment for low blood sodium
- cutting back on fluid intake.
- adjusting the dosage of diuretics.
- taking medications for symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and seizures.
- treating underlying conditions.
- infusing an intravenous (IV) sodium solution.
How do you treat low sodium in children?
Sodium should be corrected to 125 mmol/L or until seizures stop if this occurs first: Give an infusion of 3ml/kg 3% Saline over 30 minutes. Sodium should then be re-measured. A further 3ml/kg 3% Saline should be administered if still fitting and Na <125 mmol/L.
Can low sodium be serious?
Low blood sodium is common in older adults, especially those who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia can include altered personality, lethargy and confusion. Severe hyponatremia can cause seizures, coma and even death.
How do you feel when your sodium is low?
Loss of energy, drowsiness and fatigue. Restlessness and irritability. Muscle weakness, spasms or cramps. Seizures.
How do you treat low sodium in elderly?
How to Increase Sodium Levels in Elderly People
- Adjust or change medications.
- Cut back on water and fluid consumption.
- Seek treatment for underlying conditions or diseases.
- Eat foods that are high in sodium.
- Increase dietary protein to aid in water excretion.
- Infusing an intravenous sodium solution.
What is the fastest way to correct sodium?
In patients with severe symptomatic hyponatremia, the rate of sodium correction should be 6 to 12 mEq per L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq per L or less in 48 hours. A bolus of 100 to 150 mL of hypertonic 3% saline can be given to correct severe hyponatremia.
How long does it take to correct low sodium?
Generally, low sodium is asymptomatic (does not produce symptoms), when it is mild or related to your diet. It can take weeks or months for you to experience the effects of low salt in your diet—and these effects can be corrected by just one day of normal salt intake.
How can I increase my sodium levels at home?
Here are 30 foods that tend to be high in sodium — and what to eat instead.
- Shrimp. Packaged, plain, frozen shrimp commonly contains added salt for flavor, as well as sodium-rich preservatives. …
- Soup. …
- Ham. …
- Instant pudding. …
- Cottage cheese. …
- Vegetable juice. …
- Salad dressing. …
How do you fix sodium in children?
As previously discussed, when confronted with neurologic symptoms the plan is to raise the serum Na concentration until symptoms resolve, this can be done by giving doses of 1-2 mL/Kg of 3% saline, symptoms typically resolve with a rise in sodium of 3-7 mEq/L; subsequently, closely monitor electrolyte levels so that …
What should a childs sodium level be?
The normal range for blood sodium levels is 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples.
How do you fix hyponatremia orally?
First-line treatment for patients with SIADH and moderate or profound hyponatremia should be fluid restriction; second-line treatments include increasing solute intake with 0.25–0.50 g/kg per day of urea or combined treatment with low-dose loop diuretics and oral sodium chloride.